Create interest and stimulate curiosity.

Set learning within a meaningful context.

Raise questions for inquiry.

Reveal students’ ideas and beliefs, compare students’ ideas.

Role of the teaching and learning activity:

Activity or multi-modal text used to set context and establish topicality and relevance.

Motivating/discrepant experience to create interest and raise questions.

Open questions, individual student writing, drawing, acting out understanding, and discussion to reveal students’ existing ideas and beliefs so that teachers are aware of current conceptions and can plan to extend and challenge as appropriate—a form of diagnostic assessment.

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